[『教育とHIV:どこに向かうのか』 3









Towards a new approach
Chapter 4 looks to the future, describing how HIV education, and in particular the way in which it is framed and delivered, needs to change in order to respond to new challenges and developments and to ensure that it is effective and relevant to the needs of learners.

Firstly, HIV education will need to adapt to an evolving epidemic, to new developments and approaches, including recent advances in prevention and treatment, and to the needs of adolescents and young people who are living with HIV. The availability of antiretroviral therapy has enabled a generation of children born with HIV to become adolescents. These adolescents and future young adults have specific needs with respect to relationships and sexuality that are often not covered in existing HIV and sexuality education.

Secondly, education ministries and their approaches to HIV education need to respond to the growing demand from young people and parents for comprehensive sexuality education and related services. This will require the education sector to incorporate HIV education within broader skillsbased health education, including comprehensive sexuality education and to strengthen the links between education and integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health services. It will also require new ways of working and new partnerships at all levels.

Thirdly, we need to rethink the way in which HIV and sexuality education is delivered. During the last two decades education ministries have addressed HIV through a range of responses. Most have focused on curriculum-based interventions, which aim to equip children and young people with the knowledge and skills they need, and related pre- and in-service training of teachers and development of teaching and learning materials. As will be discussed in the book, HIV education and life skills programmes face numerous challenges in their implementation and coverage, which means that many learners leave school unprepared to lead healthy sexual lives.

Experience has highlighted the importance of learner-centred participatory teaching methodologies and of the need for teachers to be well prepared and supported to deliver HIV education. Teachers should be able to customize each class and lesson to meet the needs of their learners and to build their skills to negotiate the challenges and vulnerabilities they face daily in their community.

Fourthly, we need to set out clearly what education can contribute to the HIV response, as well as what it cannot be expected to achieve, and to measure its contribution using educational rather than health metrics. The education sector measures outcomes such as knowledge, attitudes and skills. These can contribute to safer behaviours but will only be realized in the long term.

In conclusion, this book argues that education is fundamental to an effective HIV response and that lessons learned from experience in HIV education can contribute to modernising education and making it more relevant to learners by building their skills to navigate the many challenges they face.

HIV education is entering a new phase, one that builds on experience and enables learners to make healthier choices throughout their lives. There has been substantial progress; further change will take time but will ensure that education helps learners to achieve their full potential and cope with future challenges, promoting good health and reducing new HIV infections, HIVrelated mortality and HIV-related stigma and discrimination.






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